Industrial X-Ray Film

Foma RohloffFoma BOHEMIA Ltd., Czech Republic, manufactures wide products´ system for industrial radiography (FOMA NDT SYSTEM) including all speed range of NDT films INDUX, processing chemicals and other accessories (film viewers, control tests, wetting agent, etc.).

INDUX (FOMADUX) is a technical radiographic film determined for non-destructive testing of materials by X-ray or gamma radiation. It is intended for manual as well as machine processing.

INDUX is available as darkroom packing ( IF- interleaved folder, FW-folder wrapped, NIF- non interleaved) or as a daylight packing (vacuum packing with or without lead foil and also in a roll).

INDUSTRIAL X-RAY FILMS

Industrial X ray film INDUX for non-destructive defectoscopy is supplied as darkroom packing or as daylight packing in accordance with ISO 5655 standard.

Darkroom packing: IF (interleaved folder), FW (folder wrapped), NIF (non interleaved films)
Sizes: 6x24, 6x40, 6x48, 10x12, 10x24, 10x40, 10x48 ,10x72 and 35x43 cm in boxes per 100 sheets,
Sizes: 10x20, 18x24, 24x30 and 30x40 cm in boxes per 50 sheets.

Daylight packing is presented as a vacuum packing under the name Fomapak with Pb foil, or without (DW).
Sizes: 6x10, 6x12, 6x16, 6x20, 6x24, 6x30, 6x40, 6x48, 10x10, 10x12, 10x16, 10x20, 10x24, 10x30, 10x40 and 10x48 cm in boxes per 50 sheets
Size: 30x40 cm in boxes per 25 sheets
Other sizes can be produced on request.

MultiPack (Sandwich) – vacuum package containing 2 films INDUX with various speeds. Dimensions and speeds of inserted films are available according to customer's individual requirements.

Daylight packing in a roll under the name FOMADUX ROLLFILM (with lead foils or without them) is produced in widths 70 mm and 100 mm, length 90 m and 150 m. Packaging: wound on a paper core in a cardboard dispenser box with lead foil, DW – without lead foil and as BLR (Bulk Load Roll) - bare rollfilm (BLR).

PROCESSING CHEMICALS

Foma BOHEMIA Ltd. manufactures processing chemicals - procesing baths for automatic and manual processing of industrial X-ray films.

For automatic processing we recommend Foma liquid baths - developer FOMADUX LP-D, starter for developing bath FOMA LP-DS, hardening rapid fixer FOMADUX FIX Set.

The procedure of manual processing is advised to be finished with using of wetting agent FOTONAL in the additional wash bath in concentration 20 to 40 ml in 1 liter of water.

Preparation of the processing baths follows the instructions presented in data sheets (technical specification).

INDUX may be also processed in other brands´ baths, which are intended for industrial radiographic films.

NDT ACCESSORIES

In addition to materials for industrial radiography Foma BOHEMIA Ltd. offers complementary products such as film viewers ( FV-2008, FV-2010), digital densitometers ( MD-10, HD-03), test for stability checking of processed X-ray films (Fomatest THIO), test for quality monitoring of processing procedure ( Fomatest SC 981) and other equipment for darkroom processing.

Hardness Testers

hardness-testersHardness testers are designed to test material hardness which is basically the ability of material to resist indentation when in contact with an indenter under load.

An indenter with know geometry and mechanical properties is pressed under load into the material and the hardness of the material is then calculated using one of a number of scales.

Infrared Thermography

Thermal imaging shows what the human eye can't see.

Thermography is the use of an infrared imaging and measurement camera to 'see' and 'measure' thermal energy emitted from an object.

Thermal, or infrared energy, is light that is not visible because its wavelength is too long to be detected by the human eye; it's the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that we perceive as heat. Unlike visible light, in the infrared world, everything with a temperature above absolute zero or -273°C emits heat. Every object – both living and inanimate – emits infrared radiation (IR) as long as its temperature is above absolute zero. Even very cold objects, like ice cubes, emit infrared. The higher the object's temperature, the greater the IR radiation emitted. Infrared cameras allow us to see what our eyes cannot.

Infrared cameras produce images of invisible infrared or 'heat' radiation and provide precise non-contact temperature measurement capabilities. Nearly everything gets hot before it fails, making infrared cameras extremely cost-effective, valuable diagnostic tools in many diverse applications. And as industry strives to improve manufacturing efficiencies, manage energy, improve product quality, and enhance worker safety, new applications for infrared cameras continually emerge, including other NDT applications such as e.g. our Billet InspectIR™ high-speed billet testing system for the detection of open to surface defects on round and square steel billets.

We make heat 'visible'...

X-Ray / Radiographic Testing (RT)

Rohloff-X-RayX-rays are produced by high voltage X-ray machines, whereas gamma rays are produced from radioactive isotopes such as Iridium 192. The X-ray or gamma rays are placed close to the material to be inspected and they pass through the material and are then captured on film. This film is then processed and the image is obtained as a series of grey shades between black and white.

The choice of which type of radiation is used, X-ray or gamma ray, depends on the thickness of the material to be tested. Gamma sources have the advantage of portability which makes them ideal for use e.g. in construction site working.

X-rays and gamma rays are very hazardous. Special precautions must be taken when performing radiography. Therefore the operator will use these with appropriate safety clothing or inside a protective enclosure and behind barriers and warning signals to ensure there are no hazards to himself or other personnel.

Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI)

HR Magfield1Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI testing) detects all surface- and near surface- crack type defects which, corresponding to their position and size, proportionally influence the magnet field.

MPI, commonly referred to as Magnetic Testing (MT), is utilized in industry as a quality assurance method to test all ferromagnetic materials including all kinds of steel and its alloys with the exception of austenitic steel and cast iron. As a 'rule-of-thumb', reliable surface crack detection requires that the width-depth-length dimensions correspond to the ratio: 1: 10: 50.

Typically the lowest detection limits are a 1-µm crack width with a 10-µm crack depth.

During the magnetization of a ferromagnetic material, magnetic field lines of flux flow through the magnetically conducting medium.

If the magnetic flux lines hit an area of low magnetic conductivity (crack filled with air), a portion of the flux lines leak out of the material and are diverted out and above the surface of the inspected part. A magnetic stray flux field emerges from the part.

To show this external stray flux field, iron powder particles are applied as dry powder or with a special liquid applicator onto the part undergoing inspection.

The iron powder particles are attracted through the magnetic effect of the magnetic stray leakage flux field and essentially create a powder outline - a clear visual indication for the human eye to see.

For easier recognition of the iron powder crack patterns, the basic iron powder can be coloured with a fluorescent dye. Under UV light the powder pattern indications will be enhanced through black light illumination. Optimum crack detection occurs when the magnetic field lines are at right angles to the defect. The angle between the field direction and the expected defect position should not be greater than 30°.

Magnetic powder techniques are usually considered to be surface crack detection techniques; there is the possibility, however, that near-surface defects of favourable position and adequate size can be indicated. The surface structure of a test piece has a significant influence on the detectability of defects.

The depth of a defect should be at least twice the associated surface roughness. Furthermore, defect detect-ability can be reduced by false indications arising from magnetic stray fields, associated with surface condition due to scoring, scratches, scale, slots etc..

Magnetic powder techniques cannot be recommended for the detection of internal defects because the possibility of a defect indication rapidly decreases when the defect is more than 0.2 mm below the surface. In spite of optimum magnetization, cases can occur where it is difficult to generate the force required for a positive defect indication.

Typical unsuitable conditions are relatively wide defects, which are recognizable with the naked eye and defects with rounded sides, shallow surface scabs or laps.

Eddy Current Testing (ET)

Eddy-CurrentsEddy current testing is an electromagnetic technique and can only be used on conductive materials. It's applications range from crack detection, to the rapid sorting of small components for either flaws, size variations, or material variation. Commonly it is used in the aerospace, automotive, marine and manufacturing industries.

When an energised coil is brought near to the surface of a metal component, eddy currents are induced into the specimen. These currents set-up magnetic fields that tend to oppose the original magnetic field.

The impedance of a coil in close proximity to the specimen is effected by the presence of the induced eddy currents in the specimen. When the eddy currents in the specimen are distorted by the presence of the flaws or material variations, the impedance in the coil is altered.

This change is measured and displayed in a manner that indicates the type of flaw or material condition.

Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)

Non Destructive Testing (NDT) includes those test methods used to examine an object, material or system without impairing its future usefulness.

Rohloff™ serves all industries, incl. NDT inspection companies, engineers, operators, NDT technicians, technologists, third party inspections organizations and various quality assurance authorities. We offer inspection solutions and market a complete range of quality NDT inspection equipment that encompasses the various NDT test methods.

NDT measurements include measuring and testing a variety of materials, objects or systems for faults, flaws or defects, thickness, material condition, size, corrosion, bulk conductivity, residual stress, alloy type, hardness, microstructure heat treatment verification, modulus, as well as other properties and material conditions. Depending on the method and measurement requirements, non-destructive testing (NDT inspection) can be used in laboratory environments, in continuous production line- or in field monitoring applications.

Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

UT

Ultrasonic inspection uses sound waves of short wavelength and high frequency to detect flaws or measure material thickness. It is used on aircraft, the power stations generating plant, or welds e.g. in pressure vessels, ships hulls, paper mills.

Sophisticated instruments emitting pulsed beams of high frequency ultrasound are used. The ultrasound is usually transmitted via a hand-held transducer which is placed on the specimen. Any sound from that pulse that returns to the transducer (like an echo) is shown on a screen which gives the amplitude of the pulse and the time taken to return to the transducer.

The test instrument analyzes the ultrasonic signals received using either a pulse-echo or through-transmission method. In the pulse-echo mode, the transmitting transducer also serves as the UT receiver and analyzes the reflected signal with respect to amplitude and time. In the through-transmission mode, the UT signal is received by a separate transducer which analyzes the amplitude loss of signal. In general, defects anywhere through the specimen thickness reflect the sound back to the transducer. Flaw size, distance and reflectivity are measured and can be interpreted to indicate material defects e.g. cracks or inclusions, as well as dimensional changes e.g. thickness.

Because of its complexity, considerable UT user training and skill is required.